Your Sexual Organs Facts and Fiction
This section contains medical information about your sexual organs and is presented using everyday language with medical terms and alternate descriptive terms to describe the body part or sexual act in brackets. For instance Cock (penis, dick, willy…). This is done not to be provocative but to promote ease of understanding by all reading levels. The information within is intended solely for adults and adolescents above the age of 16 years of age.
Anatomy of a male’s sexual organs (courtesy of Wikipedia)
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Photograph courtesy of Wikipedia which allows reproduction of image for educational purposes.
The cock or penis is the external sexual organ of men and it serves two purposes. The cock is the male sex organ, reaching its full size during puberty. In addition to its sexual function, the cock acts as a passage for urine to leave the body.
The cock is made of several parts: • Head (glans) of the cock: The head of the cock is covered with pink, moist tissue called mucosa. In uncircumcised men, covering the head is the foreskin (prepuce). In circumcised men, the foreskin is surgically removed and the mucosa on the glans transforms into dry skin. The routine circumcision of boys is controversial and the current medical concensus is that it should not be recommended. However the procedure is relatively simple and rarely leads to complications. If it is performed on an adult it may be more uncomfortable but necessary to correct a foreskin that cannot be retracted readily. Here is a link to a physician’s opinion on circumcision:
• Corpus cavernosum: Two columns of tissue running along the sides of the cock. Blood fills this tissue to cause a hard on (erection). • Corpus spongiosum: A column of sponge-like tissue running along the front of the cock and ending at the head of the cock; it fills with blood during an erection, keeping the urethra — which runs through it — open. • The urethra runs through the corpus spongiosum, conducting urine out of the body.
Erections (hard on)
An erection results from changes in blood flow in the cock. When a man becomes sexually aroused, nerves cause blood vessels in the cock to expand. More blood flows into the cock and less flows out of the cock, which causes hardening the tissue in the corpus cavernosum and this is referred to as a boner, (hard on, or erection). It is a misconception that a man’s erect cock contains bone however some animals such as whales have bone or cartilage in their cock.
The swelling, hardening and enlargement of the cock enable sexual intercourse. The scrotum may, but not always, become tightened during an erection. In many cases, the foreskin automatically and gradually pulls back, exposing the glans or head of the cock which is the most sensitive area of the cock. Some males may have to pull back their foreskin with their fingers.
After a male has cum (ejaculated) during a sexual encounter or masturbation, the hardon usually ends, but this may take time depending on the length and thickness of the cock.
Length of the soft cock does not necessarily correspond to length of the hard cock. Some smaller soft cocks grow much longer (this is often referred to as growers), while some larger soft cocks grow comparatively less (this is referred to as showers).
Generally, the size of an erect cock is the same throughout adult life. Its size may be increased by surgery although penile enlargement is controversial, and a majority of men were “not satisfied” with the results, according to one study.
Although many erect cocks point upwards, it is common and normal for the hard cock to point nearly straight ahead upwards or nearly downwards. The angle of the hard cock depends on the tension of the suspensory ligament that holds it in position. An hard cock can also take on a number of different shapes, ranging from a straight tube to a tube with a curve up or down or to the left or right.
Spontaneous or random erections
Spontaneous erections are also known as involuntary, random or unwanted erections and are normal. Such hard-on’s can be embarrassing if they happen in public, such as a classroom or living room. A hard on can occur spontaneously at any time of day, and if clothed may cause a bulge or “hump” in a man’s pants. This can be disguised or hidden by wearing close-fitting underwear, a long shirt and baggier clothes.
The cock can regularly get hard during sleep and men or boys often wake up with a hard on. Such an erection is medically known as nocturnal penile tumescence and informally known as morning wood or morning glory as well as “pee-on’s.
All men without physiological erectile dysfunction experience this phenomenon, usually three to five times during the night but may not be aware of them or recall them in the morning. Once a boy reaches his teenage years, hard-on’s occur much more frequently due to puberty. Male erections are common for children and infants, and even occur before birth.
Cumming (Ejaculation, squirting, shooting)
When a man has achieved a sufficient level of stimulation, ejaculation begins. At that point, under the control of the sympathetic nervous system, cum (semen containing sperm) is squirted out of the opening in the hard cock in rhythmic contractions. These rhythmic contractions are part of the male orgasm. They are generated by the bulbospongiosus muscle under the control of a spinal reflex at the level of the spinal nerves S2-4 via the pudendal nerve. The typical male orgasm lasts several seconds.
After the start of orgasm, pulses of semen begin to flow from the urethra, reach a peak discharge and then diminish in flow. The typical orgasm consists of 10 to 15 contractions, although the man is unlikely to be consciously aware of that many. Once the first contraction has taken place, ejaculation will continue to completion as an involuntary process. At this stage, cuming cannot be stopped. The rate of contractions gradually slows during the orgasm. Initial contractions occur at an average interval of 0.6 seconds with an increasing increment of 0.1 seconds per contraction. Contractions of most men proceed at regular rhythmic intervals for the duration of the orgasm. Many men also experience additional irregular contractions at the conclusion of the orgasm.
Ejaculation begins during the first or second contraction of orgasm. For most men the first spurt occurs during the second contraction. The first or second spurt is typically the largest and can contain 40 percent or more of the total volume of cum. After this peak the flow of each pulse diminishes. When the flow ends, the muscle contractions of the orgasm continue with no additional semen discharge. A small sample study of seven men showed an average of 7 spurts of cum (range between 5 and 10) followed by an average of 10 more contractions with no semen expelled (range between 5 and 23). This study also found who squirt a lot of cum usually have more contractions rather than shooting more cum with each contraction.
Alfred Kinsey measured the distance of ejaculation, in “some hundred” of men. In three-quarters of men, the cum dribbled from the cock, “In the other males the semen may be propelled from a matter of some inches to a foot or two, or even as far as five or six (rarely eight) feet”. Masters and Johnson report ejaculation distance to be not greater than 30–60 cm. Distance of ejaculation however, has nothing to do with sexual functioning, as during penetration of penis in vagina the distance of ejaculation plays no role. Dribbling of semen from the penis is usually sufficient for impregnation.
The force and amount of cum that will be ejected during an ejaculation will vary widely between men and may contain between a few drops to a tablespoon. In adults how much cum is produced depends on the length of time since the last ejaculation; larger semen volumes are seen with greater durations of abstinence. It is not clear whether frequent ejaculation increases, reduces or has no effect on the risk of prostate cancer. The duration of the stimulation leading up to the ejaculation can affect the volume. Abnormally low volume is known as hypospermia. It is normal for the amount of cum to diminish with
Most men experience a refractory period immediately following an orgasm, during which time they are unable to get another hard on, and a longer period again before they are capable of cuming again. During this time a man feels a deep and often pleasurable sense of relaxation, usually felt in the groin and thighs. The duration of the refractory period varies considerably, even for a given individual. Age affects the recovery time, with younger men typically recovering faster than older men, though not universally so.
However, some men are able to achieve sufficient sexual arousal immediately after cuming, and others may have refractory periods of fewer than 15 minutes. A short recovery period may allow them to seamlessly continue sexual play from one ejaculation to sexual stimulation in preparation for the next. However, other men do not like their cock stimulated during the early part of the refractory period.
There are men who are able to achieve multiple orgasms, with or without the typical sequence of ejaculation and refractory period. Some of those men report not noticing refractory periods, or are able to maintain erection by “sustaining sexual activity with a full erection until they passed their refractory time for orgasm when they proceeded to have a second or third orgasm”.
Life Cycle of the cock:
During adolescents which normally starts at the ages of 12-14 years, a hormone called testosterone becomes produced by the balls and adrenal glands which cause enlargement of the sexual organs as well as causing hair growth on the face (beard and mustache) on the body (for example on the chest) and in the pubic area (crotch). The cock will increase in length and thickness under the influence of testosterone, and the foreskin and ball sac (scrotum) may assume a slightly dusky color when not sexually aroused.
There are a number of different factors that affect the size of the hard cock.
Heredity: if your father has a large cock you may develop a larger than average cock
Body size: there may be a link between cock size and the size of other body parts…for instance tall, big men with large hands and feet may have larger cocks than average. One study found a weak correlation between the size of the stretched cock and foot size and height (Reference: Siminoski, K.; Bain, J. (1988). “The relationships among height, penile length, and foot size”. Annals of Sex Research 6 (3): 231)
Race: Although in all races there are individuals with all large and others with small cocks, the average length and thickness of the cock varies not only with ethnicity but with geography. This is likely due to inheritance (genetics) rather than skin color or other ethnic variables.
Environment: It has been suggested that differences in cock size between individuals are caused not only by genetics, but also by environmental factors such as culture, diet, chemical/pollution exposure.
Is my cock normal in size?
A number of studies have been conducted to determine what the average length and thickness of an adult man’s cock is. While results vary slightly across reputable studies, most researchers agree that the mean human penis is approximately 5.1–5.9 inches in length. Circumcised (cut) men are on average ¼ inch shorter in terms of hard length compared to those not circumcised . The consensus on typical circumference is 4.85 inches, with a diameter of 1.54 inches when fully hard.
A review published in the 2007 issue of British Journal of Urology (International) showed the average hard cock length to be 5.5–6.3 inches and thickness to be 4.7–5.1 inches. The paper compared results of twelve studies conducted on different populations in several countries. (Wylie, K.; Eardley, I. (2007). “Penile size and the ‘small penis syndrome'”. BJU international 99 (6): 1449–1455.
Among gay men
A study undertaken at Utrecht University found that the majority of homosexual men in the study regarded a large cock as ideal, and having one was linked to self esteem. One study analysing the self-reported Kinsey data set found that homosexual men had statistically larger cocks than their heterosexual counterparts (6.32 inches in length amongst gay men versus 5.99″ in heterosexuals, and 4.95 inches circumference amongst gay men versus 4.80″ in heterosexual men). (Reference: Bogaert, A.; Hershberger, S. (1999). “The relation between sexual orientation and penile size”. Archives of Sexual Behavior 28 (3): 213–221). One possiblel explanation given is a difference in the exposure to androgen hormones in the developing embryo. However both straight men and gay men are as likely to exaggerate the length of their cocks
Frequency graph of LifeStyles’ length data. (published by the condom makers Lifestyles)
This graph shows that about 25% of men have a hard cock that measures 51/2 inches and another 25% of men have a hard cock that measures 6 inches with smaller numbers that have smaller or longer cocks that this total of 50%.
The average stretched penile length at birth is about 4 cm (1.6 in), and 90% of newborn boys will be between 2.4 and 5.5 cm (0.9 and 2.2 in). Limited growth of the cock occurs between birth and 5 years of age, but very little occurs between 5 years and the onset of puberty. The average size at the beginning of puberty is 6 cm (2.4 in) with adult size reached about 5 years later.
I came across an interesting study that linked penis size (a morphological trait) to a specific sexual behavior. Christian Grov, Jeffrey T. Parsons, and David S. Bimbi surveyed 1,065 gay or bisexual men about their penis size and a broad range of variables (e.g., sexual health, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual preferences).
One finding that struck me as particularly interesting was the relationship between a man’s perceived penis size (see here for an earlier post that I wrote on this topic) and the extent to which he was an “inserter” (top) or “insertee” (bottom), in terms of anal sex. The researchers asked the following question: “Do you consider your penis size to be?” with possible answers being “below average,” “average,” “above average,” and “way above average.” The last two categories were fused into one “above average” category. They were also asked about their preferred sexual roles as relating to anal sex. The five possible answers were: Top 100%; Mostly Top; Versatile 50/50; Mostly Bottom; and Bottom 100%. The five original categories were fused to three categories: Top and Mostly Top became Top, Versatile remained as is, and Bottom and Mostly Bottom became Bottom. Here are the results:
Table 3: Percentage of respondents within each “penis size” category who identified within each of the three categories of sexual roles
———————————-Below Average Average Above Average
Top 29.2% 30.7% 41.6%
Versatile 31.9% 40.5% 37.8%
Bottom 38.9% 28.8% 20.6%
Total 100% 100% 100%
The two variables were statistically linked (p < .001). “Below average”, “Average”, and “Above Average” men were more likely to be Bottom, Versatile, and Top respectively.
As the authors proclaim early in the paper, penis size is symbolically associated with masculinity. Hence, to the extent that these different sexual positions are more “masculine” (top) or more “feminine” (bottom), it might seem reasonable to expect a link between these two variables. On a related note, in some cultural settings, being gay is largely associated with being the bottom. A similar attribution is made within the confines of prison culture.
Here is a more detailed breakdown of the average length and girth (circumference), worldwide, of an erect and flaccid penis shown in the table below:
|Erect (hard) penis
||Flaccid (soft) penis
|Length||5.16 inches or 13.11 cm||3.61 inches or 9.17 cm|
||4.69 inches or 11.91 cm||3.67 inches or 9.32 cm|
These measurements are according to a study done by BJUI (British Journal of Urology International).
Currently, the countries with the largest average penis size, 7.1”, are Congo and Sudan. The country with the smallest average size, 3.7”, is South Korea. The United States (and other Caucasian-population countries), on the other hand, have a modest average, which is around 5.1”. And surprisingly, despite the typical racial slurs, the Japanese has a greater stat compared to Americans: 5.2” average.
The largest and longest erect human penis is 13.5” (34.29 cm.) long, and it is Jonah Falcon who holds that record. In its flaccid state, it is 8” (20.32 cm.) long. When erect it was measured at 13.5 inches. His penis was so long that the TSA (Transportation Security Administration) has mistaken it for a bomb. If you want to visualize how long it is, imagine three iPhone 4s stacked upright. However, he has now been knocked off the top spot by Roberto Esquivel Cabrera’s 19″ whopper –
Males may quite easily underestimate the size of their own penis relative to that of others, because of the foreshortening obtained from looking down, or because of the accumulation of fat at the base of the penis. A survey by sexologists showed that many men who believed that their penis was of inadequate size had average-sized cocks. (“Men Worry More About Penile Size Than Women, Says 60-Year-Old Research Review”. Science Daily May 31, 2007). Another study found sex education of standard penile measurements to be helpful and relieving for patients concerned about small penis size, most of whom had incorrect beliefs of what is considered medically normal. The perception of having a large penis is linked to higher self esteem. ( Lever, J.; Frederick, D. A.; Peplau, L. A. (2006). “Does Size Matter? Men’s and Women’s Views on Penis Size Across the Lifespan”. Psychology of Men & Masculinity 7 (3): 129.
The pressing sexual question asked by men from all walks of life is, does penis size matter? This hotly debated topic stems from men’s preoccupation with the glorified male body part and what they believe it says about their manhood. While some men pride themselves over their above-average size, and others tuck themselves away in a corner, the truth is the vast majority of men have more than enough bulk and length to sexually perform.
It’s time to take a load off your minds and separate fact from fiction with these little-known penis size facts that will blow your mind away:
1. Penis Size Does Matter… For One-Night Stands
Men looking for one-night stands may feel under a lot of pressure for a night of meaningless sex. A 2014 studypresented at the meeting of the Association for Psychological Science in San Francisco, Calif., in June, found girth, not length, matters for one-time partners, but not for long-term ones.
2. The Most Desirable Penis Size
Penis size does matter for one-night stands, but what about for the others? Less-endowed men can rest assured bigger genitalia isn’t always better. In an ASAPScience video, “Does Penis Size Matter?” Mitchell Moffit and Gregory Brown found a penis in proportion with the male body is much more desirable by women and other men. It is a man’s confidence, enjoyable personality, and attraction that are strong predictors for sexual satisfaction, and weight far higher than disproportionate penis size.
3. Penis Anxiety Doesn’t Correlate With Penis Size
No matter how well-endowed men are, they are likely to experience penis anxiety when they think about the perceived size of their penis. A 2013 study published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine found even men who were average or above-average, along with a less endowed package, expressed feelings of inadequacy and self-consciousness. Thirty-five percent of men surveyed were happy with their penis size and 30 percent reported dissatisfaction with their size.
Penis anxiety was highest among gay, bisexual, and older men. It is believed the prevalence of penis shame among gay and bisexual men could be attributed to the opportunities to compare body parts. However, in older men, this insecurity could derive from fears about the physical ability to perform.
4. Germany Has The Most Penis Enlargement Procedures
The answer to whether or not penis size matters is arguable, but Germany has risen to the occasion. As the world’s capital for penis enlargement, it’s clear size matters — at least to them. 2014 data by the International Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery found 18 percent of all penis enlargements in the world are done in the land of the 2014 FIFA World Cup champions. This translates to roughly eight out of every 100,000 adult males who reside in the country. Venezuela, Spain, and Mexico shortly follow Germany with the countries with the most penis enlargement operations.
5. Best Way To Appear Larger Is Losing Fat
There are a plethora of penis enhancement creams, pills, and procedures that promise to increase a man’s penis size, but the truth is there is no scientifically proven way to increase penis size. Psychology Today suggests losing the pot belly by exercising, eating less meat and cheese, and more plant foods to shed the weight. A big belly can touch the base of the penis and actually make it look smaller. Losing belly fat will help make your penis look bigger in size.
6. Erect Gay Penises Are Bigger
On average, the size of a gay man’s penis is a third of an inch longer. A 1999 study published in the journal Archives of Sexual Behavior found erect gay penises tend to be this length, and suspect it might have something to do with prenatal hormones that affect the structure and size of genitalia, and certain structures of the brain that affect sexual orientation. Penis size was self-reported.
A study undertaken at Utrecht University found that the majority of homosexual men in the study regarded a large penis as ideal, and having one was linked to self-esteem. One study analysing the self-reported Kinseydata set found that the average penis of a homosexual man was larger than the average penis of their heterosexual counterparts (6.32 inches [16,05 cm] in length amongst gay men versus 5.99″ [15,21 cm] in heterosexuals, and 4.95 inches [12,57 cm] circumference amongst gay men versus 4.80″ [12,19 cm] in heterosexual men).
Research confirms what men have long suspected, and in some cases feared: that the cock itself undergoes significant changes as a man moves from his sexual prime (which is around the age of 30 for most men) into middle age and then old age. These changes include:
Appearance: There are two major changes. The head of the cock gradually looses its purplish color and this is due to reduced blood flow. There is also a slow loss of pubic hair.
Cock Size: Weight gain is common as men grow older. As fat accumulates on the lower abdomen, the apparent length of the cock changes. In some cases, abdominal fat all buries the cock. Ronald Tamler, MD, PhD co-director of the Men’s Health Program at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City says “One way I motivate my overweight patients is by telling them that they can appear to gain up to an inch in size of their cock by simply losing weight. In addition the cock tends to undergo an actual reduction in length and thickness. If a man’s erect cock is 6 inches long when he is in his 30’s, it might be 5 or 51/2 inches when he reaches his 60’s or 70’s .
What can go wrong with the cock?
Erectile dysfunction (ED): A man’s cock does not achieve sufficient hardness for satisfying intercourse. Atherosclerosis (damage to the arteries) is the most common cause of erectile dysfunction. There are now effective medications to help counteract difficulties with erections (examples: Viagra, Cialis, Levitra).
An abnormal erection that does not go away after several hours even though stimulation has stopped. Serious problems can result from this painful condition. This condition may rarely occur when taking medicaitons such as Viagra
The foreskin cannot be retracted or if retracted cannot be returned to its normal position over the cock head. In adult men, this can occur after cock infections.
Phimosis is a condition that occurs in all ages of men, where the foreskin does not fully retract over the head of the penis. The non retractable state can be considered normal for males up to adolescence. It is possible to acquired phimosis from damage or scarring to the penis, it can show as a white ring around the tip that is hardened non elastic skin.
Some men may have trouble during sex and masturbation, even pain. If this happens once, let it heal. If it happens continually you will want to take action. Seeking a doctor is always the best step, but here we go into depth on some home remedies that may work, or get your started.
There are two situations where the cock may become curved.
Boys and men with longer than average cocks may at times develop a curve which can be sideways or downwards. This may at times be due to wearing tight underwear during the years of adolescence when the cock is growing rapidly which will shape the cock to conform with the position he normally places his cock. Hard ons which occur many times per day during adolescence will be partial which may cause for under developement of some of the chambers of the cock. This is considered a variation of normal and does not require treatment. For gay men, a downward curvature of the penis may have some advantages for the bottom as the tip of the penis will stimulate the prostate more when fucking a bottom in the doggie position whereas a size curvature may have advantages with the bottom in the scizzor position.
In addition there is a medical condition called Peyronie’s disease which causes scar tissue to grow unevenly in the cock. Often this may be due to trauma during adolescence or developmental stage. This can make it hard to achieve an erection and to have an orgasm.
Without treatment, about 12–13% of patients will spontaneously improve over time, 40–50% will get worse and the rest will be relatively stable. This is based on a survey of 97 men and therefore based on the subjective impression of the patients. No objective long-term natural history via continual evaluation of patients has been recorded to date.
Medication and supplements
Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (marketed as Xiaflex by [Auxilium]), a drug originally approved by the FDA to treat Dupuytren’s contracture, is now an FDA-approved injectable drug for treatment of Peyronie’s disease. The drug is reported to work by breaking down the excess collagen in the penis that causes Peyronie’s disease.
Vitamin E supplementation has been studied for decades, and some success has been reported in older trials, but those successes have not been reliably repeated in larger, newer studies. A combination of Vitamin E and colchicine has shown some promise in delaying progression of the condition.
Some newer agents targeting the basic mechanisms of inflammation have been studied in larger clinical trials. These include potassium para-aminobenzoate (Potaba), pentoxifylline(acting through TGFβ1 inhibition), and Coenzyme Q10.
The efficacy of Interferon-alpha-2b in the early stages of the disease has been reported in recent publications, but it was found to be less effective in cases where calcification of the plaque had occurred in common with many treatments.
Surgery, such as the “Nesbit operation” (which is named after Reed M. Nesbit (1898–1979), an American urologist at University of Michigan), is considered a last resort and should only be performed by highly skilled urological surgeons knowledgeable in specialized corrective surgical techniques. A penile prosthesis may be appropriate in advanced cases.
Physical therapy and devices
There is moderate evidence that penile traction therapy is a well-tolerated, minimally invasive treatment, but there is uncertainty about the optimal duration of stretching per day and per course of treatment, and the treatment course is difficult.
Cancer of the cock (penis):
Cock cancer is very rare in the Canadian men. Circumcision decreases the risk of cock cancer.
Redness of the cock
Rash on the cock
Foul smelling discharge from the cock
Pain in the cock
Growth or sore on the cock that doesn’t heal within four weeks (may look like a wart, ulcer, or blister), may or may not be painful
Bleeding from the cock or from under the foreskin
Change in color of the cock
Causes of Cancer of Cock
AIDS can increase a man’s risk of developing penile cancer (Reference:http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/PenileCancer/DetailedGuide/penile-cancer-risk-factors)
Lack of circumcision – Circumcision during infancy or in childhood provides partial protection against penile cancer, but this is not the case when performed in adulthood.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) – HPV is a risk factor in the development of penile cancer. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HPV is responsible for about 800 (about 40%) of 1,570 cases of penile cancer diagnosed annually in the United States. About half of men with penile cancer also have genital warts, which are caused by HPV. There are more than 120 types of HPV. Several authors have suggested the use of HPV vaccines such as Gardasil or Cervarix to reduce the risk of HPV and, consequently, penile cancer; the use of condoms has also been proposed.
Poor hygiene – Poor hygiene can increase a man’s risk of penile cancer. Good genital hygiene involves washing the cock, the scrotum, and the foreskin daily with water.
Smegma – Smegma, a whitish substance that can accumulate beneath the foreskin, is associated with greater risk of penile cancer. The American Cancer Society suggests that smegma may not be carcinogenic, but may increase the risk by causing irritation and inflammation of the cock.